Early Minoan period (XXX - XXIII centuries BC)
The original population of Crete is commonly referred to as Minoans, who created a very developed archaeological Minoan culture. At the beginning of the third millennium, in Crete, as in many parts of the globe, the production of copper, and later bronze, was mastered. In the middle of the III millennium BC, metallurgical centers appeared on some islands of the Aegean Sea, where arsenic bronze was produced - an alloy of copper, tin and arsenic added to increase the malleability of the material. This alloy, of course, was very harmful, so later the Cretans began to produce ordinary bronze, consisting only of copper and tin.
A potter's wheel appears, and with it vessels with thin walls, confirming the professionalism of the masters. A major shift is taking place in the maritime business: long high-speed vessels are being built, with rows of 10 to 12 oars, coastal coastal navigation, not designed for traveling to the open ocean, is developing.
Since the second half of the third millennium, cities and private property have been appearing in Crete, as evidenced by stone seals with crude pictographs. Along with property, inequality arises, which, in turn, generates a desire for some people to rule, and for others to obey. So the first kings (Basileae) who lived in the cities of Knossos, Mallia and Festus begin to rule in Crete.